Reference info about morse code.

Brushing up my code and aware of the need to focus on sound rather than visual dots and dashes I felt the need to pull together a definitive (for me) list including not just the main A to Z and 1 through to zero, but a solid listing – also rendered in sound on the page – of punctuation from period through to the @ sign, and then the common prosigns likely to be heard in ham QSOs. Okay I may as well add a reference to Q codes and as many abbreviations as seem relevant and maybe not obvious.

I’m keen to track down how operators include accents in their transmissions – or not.

I’d also like to get a sense of abbreviations hams use in their own languages (MCI for ‘merci’, AWDH for ‘auf wiederhören’ and DSW for ‘do svidanya’ are the only I know so far).

A – di-dah
B – dah-di-di-dit
C – dah-di-dah-dit
D – dah-di-dit
E – dit
F – di-di-dah-dit
G – dah-dah-dit
H – di-di-di-dit
I – di-dit
J – di-dah-dah-dah
K – dah-di-dah
L – di-dah-di-dit
M – dah-dah

N – dah-dit
O – dah-dah-dah
P – di-dah-dah-dit
Q – dah-dah-di-dah
R – di-dah-dit
S – di-di-dit
T – dah
U – di-di-dah
V – di-di-di-dah
W – di-dah-dah
X – dah-di-di-dah
Y – dah-di-dah-dah
Z – dah-dah-di-dit

1 – di-dah-dah-dah-dah
2 – di-di-dah-dah-dah
3 – di-di-di-dah-dah
4 – di-di-di-di-dah
5 – di-di-di-di-dit
6 – dah-di-di-di-dit
7 – dah-dah-di-di-dit
8 – dah-dah-dah-di-dit
9 – dah-dah-dah-dah-dit
0 – dah-dah-dah-dah-dah


period (.) – di-dah-di-dah-di-dah
question mark (?) – di-di-dah-dah-di-dit
comma (,) – dah-dah-di-di-dah-dah
fraction bar (/) – dah-di-di-dah-dit
double dash (=) – dah-di-di-di-dah
error – di-di-di-di-di-di-di-dit
colon (:) – dah-dah-dah-di-di-dit
apostrophe (‘) – di-dah-dah-dah-dah-dit
hyphen (-) – dah-di-di-di-di-dah
left bracket ( ( ) – dah-di-dah-dah-dit
right bracket ( ) ) – dah-di-dah-dah-di-dah
inverted commas (“) – di-dah-di-di-dah-dit
double hyphen (=) – dah-di-di-di-dah
break [BK] – dah-di-di-di-dah


starting signal [CT] – dah-di-dah-di-dah
error – di-di-di-di-di-di-di-dit
invitation to transmit [K] – dah-di-dah
understood – di-di-di-dah-dit
cross (+) – di-dah-di-dah-dit
wait [AS] – di-dah-di-di-dit
end of message [AR] – di-dah-di-dah-dit (+)
end of work, contact [SK] – di-di-di-dah-di-dah
wait [AS] – di-dah-di-di-dit
break [BK] – dah-di-di-di-dah-di-dah
go ahead [K] – dah-di-dah
go named station only [KN] – dah-di-dah-dah-dit
separator [BT] – dah-di-di-di-dah (=)
going off air [CL] – dah-di-dah-di-di-dah-di-dit
understood [SN] – di-di-di-dah-dit (also [VE])
multiplication (x) – dah-di-di-dah
@ – di-dah-dah-di-dah-dit

accented characters

A acute Á – di-dah-dah-di-dah
A grave À – di-dah-dah-di-dah
A umlaut Ä – di-dah-di-dah
Å – di-dah-dah-di-dah
æ –  di-dah-di-dah
C cedilla Ç – di-dah-di-dah
Ch – dah-dah-dah-dah
E acute É – di-di-dah-di-dit
E grave È – di-dah-di-di-dah
N tilde Ñ – dah-dah-di-dah-dah
O umlaut Ö – dah-dah-dah-dit
ø ‘ – dah-dah-dah-dit
ß –  di-di-di-dah-dah-di-dit
U umlaut Ü – di-di-dah-dah

AA All after (used after question mark to request repetition)
AB All before (similarly)
ARRL American Radio Relay League
ABT About
ADR Address
AGN Again
ANS answer
ANT Antenna
ARND Around
AWDH “auf Wiederhören”
BCI Broadcast interference
BCNU Be seeing you
BCP beaucoup
BD bad
BJR bonjour
BK Break (pause in transmission)
BN All between
BTH both
BTR Better
BUG Semiautomatic mechanical key
BURO bureau
B4 Before
C Yes; correct
CBA Callbook address
CFM Confirm
CK Check
CL Clear (I am closing my station)
CLG Calling
CLIX Key clicks
CMG coming
CONDX conditions
CONGRATS congratulations
CPI copy
CQ Calling any station
CRD card
CS Callsign
CTL Control
CUAGN See you again
CUD Could
CUL See you later
CUZ Because
CW Continuous wave
CX Conditions
DE From (or “this is”)
DN Down
DR Dear
DSW Goodbye (Russian: до свидания [Do svidanya])
DX Distance, foreign countries
EL element
EMRG Emergency
ENUF Enough
ES And
EU Europe
EVE evening
FB Fine business (like “OK”)
FD Field day
FM From
FONE Telephony
FQ frequency
FREQ Frequency
FWD Forward
GA Good afternoon or Go ahead
GB Goodbye
GD Good day
GE Good evening
GG Going
GL Good luck
GM Good morning
GN Good night
GND Ground (ground potential)
GP Ground plane
GUD Good
GS Green stamp
GX Ground
HI Humour intended
HPE hope
HQ headquarters
HR Here, hear, hour
HRD Heard
HRS hours
HV Have
HVG Having
HVY heavy
HW How
HW? How did you copy?
II I say again
IMP Impedance
KLIX Key clicks
KN Over
LID Poor operator
LIS licensed
LP Long path
LSN Listen
LW Long wire
MCI Merci
MGR manager
MI my
MILS Milliamperes
MNI Many
MOM moment
MSG Message
MULT multiplier
N No; nine (in RST report)
NFD National field day
NIL Nothing
NM Name
NR Number, near
NW Now
NX Noise; noisy
OB Old boy
OC Old chap
OK Okay, correct
OM Old man (any male regardless of age)
ONLI only
OO Official observer
OP Operator
OT Old timer
OTC Old timers club
OOTC Old old timers club
PSE Please
PWR Power
PX Prefix, press
QCWA Quarter Century Wireless Association
R Are; received as transmitted (origin of “Roger”), or decimal point (depending on context)
RCVD received
RCVR Receiver
RFI Radio frequency interference
RIG Radio apparatus
RPRT Report
RPT Repeat or report (depending on context)
RST Signal report format (Readability-Signal Strength-Tone)
RTTY Radioteletype
RX Receiver
SA say
SAE Self-addressed envelope
SASE Self-addressed, stamped envelope
SED Said
SEZ Says
SFR So far (proword)
SIG Signal or signature
SIGS Signals
SK Out (proword), silent key
SKED Schedule
SMS Short message service
SN Soon
SNR Signal-to-noise ratio
SP Short path
SRI Sorry
SSB Single sideband
STN Station
SUM Some
SWL Short wave listener
T Zero
TEMP Temperature
TEST Test, contest
TFC Traffic
THRU through
TIL until
TKS Thanks
TMW Tomorrow
TNX Thanks
TRBL trouble
TRX transceiver
TT That
TU Thank you
TVI Television interference
TX Transmit, transmitter
TXT Text
U You
UFB Ultra fine business
UNLIS Unlicensed
UP upward
UR Your or You’re (depending on context)
URS Yours
VX Voice; phone (also vieux)
VY Very
W Watts
WA Word after
WATSA? What do you say?
WB Word before
WC Wilco
WDS Words
WID With
WKD Worked
WKG Working
WL Will
WPM Words per minute
WRK work
WUD Would
WW would
WX Weather
XCVR Transceiver
XMTR Transmitter
XYL Wife
YF Wife
YL Young lady (used for any female)
YR Year
Z Zulu – UTC
ZX Zero beat
73 Best regards
88 Love and kisses

Q codes

CodeQuestionAnswer or Statement
QRAWhat is the name (or call sign) of your station?The name (or call sign) of my station is …
QRBHow far approximately are you from my station ?The approximate distance between our stations is……..nautical miles (or…. kilometers)
QRHDoes my frequency vary ?Your frequency varies.
QRKWhat is the readability of my signals (or those of …)?The readability of your signals (or those of …) is … (1 to 5).
QRLAre you busy? Is the frequency in use?I am busy. (or I am busy with … ) Please do not interfere.
QRMDo you have interference?I have interference.
QRNAre you troubled by static?I am troubled by static.
QROShall I increase power?Increase power
QRPShall I decrease power?Decrease power
QRQShall I send faster?Send faster (… wpm)
QRSShall I send slower?Send slower (… wpm)
QRTShall I stop sending?Stop sending.
QRUHave you anything for me?I have nothing for you.
QRVAre you ready?I am ready.
QRWShall I inform…that you are calling him on…khz (Mhz)?.Please inform…that I am calling him on…khz(Mhz)
QRXShall I standby? / When will you call me again?Please standby. / I will call you again at … (hours) on … kHz (or MHz)
QRYWhat is my turn ?Your turn is number….(or according to any other indication).
QRZWho is calling me?You are being called by … on … kHz (or MHz)
QSAWhat is the strength of my signals (or those of … )?The strength of your signals (or those of …) is … (1 to 5).
QSBAre my signals fading?Your signals are fading.
QSDIs my keying defective?Your keying is defective.
QSKCan you hear me between your signals?I can hear you between my signals.
QSLCan you acknowledge receipt?I am acknowledging receipt.
QSMShall I repeat the last telegram (message) which I sent you, or some previous telegram (message)?Repeat the last telegram (message) which you sent me (or telegram(s) (message(s)) numbers(s) …).
QSNDid you hear me (or … (call sign)) on .. kHz (or MHz)?I did hear you (or … (call sign)) on … kHz (or MHz).
QSOCan you communicate with … direct or by relay?I can communicate with … direct (or by relay thru …).
QSPWill you relay to…?I will relay to…
QSTIs there any message for radio-hams ?Here follows a message for radio-hams
QSUShall I send or reply on this frequency ( or on …khz (Mhz))?Send or reply on this frequency ? (on …khz (Mhz)).
QSVShall I send a series of V’s on this frequency ( or on …khz (Mhz))?Send a series of V’s on this frequency ( or on …khz (or …Mhz)).
QSXWill you listen to … (call sign(s) on … kHz (MHz))?I am listening to … (call sign(s) on … kHz (MHz))
QSYShall I change to transmission on another frequency?Change to transmission on another frequency (or on … kHz (or MHz)).
QTAShall I cancel telegram (message) No. … as if it had not been sent?Cancel telegram (message) No. … as if it had not been sent.
QTCHow many telegrams (messages) have you to send?I have … telegrams (messages) for you (or for …).
QTHWhat is your position in latitude and longitude (or according to any other indication)?My position is … latitude…longitude / My location is …
QTRWhat is the correct time? (UTC)The correct time is … hours (UTC)